Development and Scalable Production of Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines for Human and Veterinary Use


The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for efficient vaccine platforms that can rapidly be developed and manufactured on a large scale to immunize the population against emerging viruses. Viral-vectored vaccines are prominent vaccine platforms that have been approved for use against the Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2. The Newcastle Disease Virus is a promising viral vector, as an avian paramyxovirus that infects poultry but is safe for use in humans and other animals. NDV has been extensively studied not only as an oncolytic virus but also a vector for human and veterinary vaccines, with currently ongoing clinical trials for use against SARS-CoV-2. However, there is a gap in NDV research when it comes to process development and scalable manufacturing, which are critical for future approved vaccines. In this review, we summarize the advantages of NDV as a viral vector, describe the steps and limitations to generating recombinant NDV constructs, review the advances in human and veterinary vaccine candidates in pre-clinical and clinical tests, and elaborate on production in embryonated chicken eggs and cell culture. Mainly, we discuss the existing data on NDV propagation from a process development perspective and provide prospects for the next steps necessary to potentially achieve large-scale NDV-vectored vaccine manufacturing.

Julia Fulber
PhD Candidate
MEng Alumnus, 2022